Spatio Seasonal Discrepancies in the Physico-chemical Parameters along the Surface Water of Gahirmatha Estuary, East Coast of India in the Bay of Bengal

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemistry, Centurion University, Odisha, India

2 2P.G. Department of Environmental sciences, Sambalpur University, Odisha, India


Water is a key factor in our lives, yet this valuable asset is progressively under threat. From the total share of the Earth's water, only 2% is fresh water, which is available for various life forms, including humans. Monitoring the quality of water is very important to check the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, and the subsequent control of its wholesomeness. Particularly, the estuarine water bodies that are rich in diversity confront more threats for contamination in the entire riverine framework. This study was carried out to evaluate the current status of various physico-chemical properties of four different estuarine locations of the Gahirmatha coast, in the Indian state of Odisha in the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal: water temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, TSS, turbidity, salinity, DO, BOD, total alkalinity, fluoride, Nitrite-N, Ammonia-N, Nitrate-N, phosphate, silicate, total chlorophyll. The study was carried out during the pre-monsoon (March to April) and post-monsoon (November to December) seasons in 2019. The surface water samples were collected from designated stations both during low tide and high tide to observe tidal influence. The data were subjected to statistical analysis regarding correlation coefficient, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA) for interpretation. The Pearson correlation showed that the results were significantly correlated both at the 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance. When PCA was interpolated for the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon data, three broad groups were categorized. The highest eigen value was about 10.87 during the pre-monsoon and 9.07 during the post-monsoon season, and the cluster analysis showed there were two major groups of parameters with respect to the Euclidean distance. The observed variations in the concentration of these physico-chemical parameters in the estuarine waters of the Gahirmatha may be attributed to the riverine inputs from the catchment of rivers like the Brahmani, Baitarani, and Dhamra, which are associated with anthropogenic local activities.


Main Subjects

[1] Arimieari, L. W., Sangodoyin, A. Y., Ereoforiokuma, N. S. (2014). Assessment of surface water quality in some selected locations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. International journal of engineering research and technology, 3(7), 1146-1151.
[2] Rahmanian, N., Ali, S. H. B., Homayoonfard, M., Ali, N. J., Rehan, M., Sadef, Y., Nizami, A. S. (2015). Analysis of physiochemical parameters to evaluate the drinking water quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia. Journal of chemistry, 1-10.
[3] Onifade, A. K., Ilori, R. M. (2008). Microbiological analysis of sachet water vended in Ondo State, Nigeria. Environmental research journal, 2(3), 107-110.
[4] Ababio, O.e Y. (2005). New school chemistry for senior secondary schools. African first publisher Ltd, Onitsha. 3rd edn, 292.
[5] Pardeshi, B.M. (2019). Screening of physicochemical parameters of water samples from pune area, india, Journal of emerging technologies and innovative research, 6(5), 63-68.
[6] Ramana, V., Rao, L. M., Manjulatha, C. (2015). Physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Visakhapatnam, east coast of India. Asian journal of experimental sciences, 29(1, 2), 7-10.
[7] Choudhury, S. B., Panigrahy, R. C. (1991). Seasonal destribution and behaviour of nutrients in the creek and coastal waters of Gopalpur, East Coast of India. Mahasagar, 24(2), 81-88.
[8] Gothandaraman, N. (1993). Studies on micro Zooplankton (Doctoral dissertation, PhD. thesis, Annamalai University, India).
[9] Panda, B. S., Mahanta, S. K. (2008). Quantification of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Mahanadi Estuary at Paradeep, Odisha. International research journal of engineering and technology, 7(6), 6971-6981.
[10] Smith, S. V., Swaney, D. P., Talaue-Mcmanus, L., Bartley, J. D., Sandhei, P. T., McLAUGHLIN, C. J, Wulff, F. (2003). Humans, hydrology, and the distribution of inorganic nutrient loading to the ocean. BioScience, 53(3), 235-245.
[11] Panda, B. S., Mahanta, SS K. (2020). Determination of herbicides and pesticides in estuary and sea water of Mahanadi, near Paradeep, Odisha, International journal of research and analytical reviews, 7(3,727), 686-697.
[12] Pejman, A.H., Nabi Bidhendi, G.R., Karbassi, A.R., Mehradi, N., Esmaeili, B.M. (2009). Evaluation of spatial and seasonal variations in surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques. International journal of environmental science and technology, 6(3), 467–476.
[13] Yang, L., Song, X., Zhang, Y., Yuan, R., Ma, Y., Han, D., Bu, H. (2012). A hydro-chemical framework and water quality assessment of river water in the upper reaches of the Huai River Basin, China. Environmental earth science, 67(7), 2141–2153.
[14] Qadir, A., Malik, R.N., Husain, S.Z. (2008). Spatio-temporal variations in water quality of Nullah Aik-tributary of the river Chenab, Pakistan. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 140(1), 43–59.
[15] Zhang, X., Wang, Q., Liu, Y., Wu, J., Yu, M. (2011). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the assessment of water quality in the Southwest New Territories and Kowloon, Hong Kong. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 173(1–4), 17–27.
[16] Mustapha, A., Aris, A.Z. (2012). Spatial aspects of surface water quality in the Jakara Basin, Nigeria using chemometric analysis. Journal of environmental science and health, Part A, 47(10), 1455–1465.
[17] Martin, G.D., Vijay, J.G., Laluraj, C.M., Madhu, N.V., Joseph, M., Nair, G.V.M., Gupta, K.K. (2008). Fresh water influence on nutrient Stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, southwest coast of India. Applied ecology and environs. Research, 6(1), 57-64.
[18] Mc Lusky, D.S., Elliott, M. (2004). The estuarine ecosystem: ecology, threats and management, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press Inc., New York, NY, USA, 214.
[19] Jeyageetha, J.C., Sugirtha, P.K. (2015). Study of physico-chemical parameters of sea water in Tuticorin Coastal area and assessing their Quality, Tamil Nadu, India., Journal of chemical and pharmaceutical research, 7(5), 1298-1304.
[20] Behera, S., Tripathy, B., Kuppusamy, S., Choudhury, B.C. Pandav, B. (2016). Fisheries impact on breeding of olive ridley turtles (lepidochelysolivacea) along the gahirmatha coast, Bay of Bengal, Odisha, India. Herpetological Journal, 26, 93-98.
[21] Behera, A., Pati, S.S., Mishra, S., Nayak. (2017). Report Card of Gahirmatha Coastal Stretch 2015, ICZMP, SPCB, Odisha, 7.
[22] Mishra, R.R., Rath, B., Thatoi, H. (2008). Water Quality Assessment of Aquaculture Ponds Located in Bhitarkanika Mangrove ecosystem, Orissa, India. Turkish journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences, 8, 71-77.
[23] Mishra, R.R., Swain, M.R., Dangar, T.K., Thatoi, H. (2012). Diversity and seasonal fluctuation of predominant microbial communities in Bhitarkanika, a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India. Revista de biología tropical, 60(2), 909-924.
[24] Chauhan, R., Ramanathan, Al. (2008). Evaluation of water quality of Bhitarkanika mangrove system, Orissa, east coast of India. Indian journal of marine sciences, 37, 153-158.
[25] Gupta, N.C., Das, S., Basak, Uday. (2007). Useful Extracellular Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Bhitarkanika Mangrove ecosystem of Orissa Coast. Malaysian journal of microbiology, 3, 15-18.
[26] Qasim, S. Z. (1977). Biological productivity of the Indian Ocean. Indian journal of marine sciences, 6122–137
 [27] Radhakrishna, K., Devassy, V. P., Bhargava, R. M. S. (1978). Primary production in the Northern Arabian Sea, Indian journal of marine sciences, 7, 271–275.
 [28] Prasanna, S. K., Muraleedharan, P.M., Prasad, T. G. (2002). Why is the Bay of Bengal less productive during SM as compared to the Arabian Sea, Geophysical research letters, 29(24), 2238–2435.
[29] Panda, U. C., Sundaray, S. K., Rath, P., Nayak, B. B., Bhatta, D. (2006). Application of factor and cluster analysis for characterization of river and estuarine water systems–a case study: Mahanadi River (India). Journal of hydrology, 331(3-4), 434-445.
[30] Gomes, H. R., Goes, J. I., Saino, T. (2000). Influence of physical processes and freshwater discharge on the seasonality of phytoplankton regime in the Bay of Bengal. Continental shelf research20(3), 313-330.
[31] Madhu, N.V., Maheswaran, P.A., Jyothibabu, R. (2002) Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa). Current science, 82(12), 1472–1479.
[32] Madhupratap, M., Gauns, M., Ramaiah, N. (2003). Biogeochemistry of the Bay of Bengal: physical, chemical and primary productivity during summer monsoon. Deep sea research, 50, 881–896
[33] Coastal regulation zone notification, (2011). Coastal regulation zone notification, Ministry of Environment and Forests (Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife), Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part-II, Section 3, Sub-section (ii) of dated the 6th January, 2011.
[34] Biswal, D., Behera, A., Pati, S.S., Mishra, S., Nayak, S., Mishra, S., Panda, B.S., Behera, R. (2019). Status and trends of Coastal Parameters (2013-2018), Paradeep, Gahirmatha Dhamra coastal environment. ICZMP, SPCB, Odisha, 208.
[35] Parsons, T. R., Maita, Y., Lalli, C. M. (1984). A manual of Chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 173.
[36] Olsen, A.R., Sedransk, J., Edwards, D., Gotway, C. A., Liggett, W., Rathbun, S., Reckhow, K. H., Young, L. J. (1999). Statistical issues for monitoring ecological and natural resources in the United States. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 54, 1-45.
 [37] Sundaray, S.K., Panda, U.C., Nayak, B.B., Bhatta, D. (2006). Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in water quality of Mahanadi River–Estuarine system (India) a case study. Environmental geochemistry and health, 28, 317–330.
[38] Pradhan, U.K., Shirodkar, P.V., Sahu, B. K. (2009). Physico-chemical characteristics of the coastal water off Devi estuary, Orissa and evaluation of its seasonal changes using chemometric techniques. Current science, 96 (9), 1203-1209.
[39] Helena, B., Pardo, R., Vega, M., Barrado, E., Fernandez, J.M., Fernandez, L. (2000). Temporal evolution of groundwater composition in an alluvial (Pisuerga river, Spain) by principal component analysis. Water research, 34, 807–816.
[40] Singh, K.P., Malik, A., Mohan, D., Sinha, S. (2004). Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti River (India) – a case study. Water research, 38, 3980–3992.
[41] Liu, C.W., Lin, K.H., Kuo, Y. M. (2003). Application of factor analysis in the assessment of ground water in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Science of the total environment, 313, 77–89.