Employing response surface analysis using for photocatalytic degradation of MTBE by nanoparticles

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineerin, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Since groundwaters are a major source of drinking water, their pollution with organic contaminants such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a very significant issue. Hence, this research investigated the photocatalytic degradation of MTBE in an aqueous solution of TiO2-ZnO-CoO nanoparticle under UV irradiation. In order to optimize photocatalytic degradation, response surface methodology was applied to assess the effects of experimental variables such as catalyst loading, initial concentration of MTBE and pH on the dye removal efficiency. The optimal condition to achieve the best degradation for the initial concentration of 30.58 mg/L of MTBE was found at a pH of 7.68 and a catalyst concentration of 1.68 g/L after 60 min.


Main Subjects

[1] Belpoggi, F., Soffritti, M., Maltoni, C. (1995). Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)—a gasoline additive—causes testicular and lympho haematopoietic cancers in rats. Toxicology and industrial health, 11(2), 119-149.
[2] Smith, A. E., Hristova, K., Wood, I., Mackay, D. M., Lory, E., Lorenzana, D., Scow, K. M. (2005). Comparison of biostimulation versus bioaugmentation with bacterial strain PM1 for treatment of groundwater contaminated with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Environmental health perspectives, 317-322.
[3] Danmaliki, G. I., Shamsuddeen, A. A., Usman, B. J. (2016). The effect of temperature, turbulence, and Ph on the solubility of MTBE. European journal of earth and environment, 3(2), 31-39.
[4] El Madani, M., Harir, M., Zrineh, A., El Azzouzi, M. (2015). Photodegradation of imazethapyr herbicide by using slurry and supported TiO2: Efficiency comparison. Arabian journal of chemistry, 8(2), 181-185.
[5] Pirkanniemi, K., Sillanpää, M. (2002). Heterogeneous water phase catalysis as an environmental application: a review. Chemosphere, 48(10), 1047-1060.
[6] Siuleiman, S., Kaneva, N., Bojinova, A., Papazova, K., Apostolov, A., Dimitrov, D. (2014). Photodegradation of Orange II by ZnO and TiO2 powders and nanowire ZnO and ZnO/TiO2 thin films. Colloids and surfaces A: Physicochemical and engineering aspects, 460, 408-413.
[7] Evgenidou, E., Fytianos, K., Poulios, I. (2005). Semiconductor-sensitized photodegradation of dichlorvos in water using TiO2 and ZnO as catalysts. Applied catalysis B: Environmental, 59(1), 81-89.
[8] Cui, L., Wang, Y., Niu, M., Chen, G., Cheng, Y. (2009). Synthesis and visible light photocatalysis of Fe-doped TiO2 mesoporous layers deposited on hollow glass microbeads. Journal of solid state chemistry, 182(10), 2785-2790.
[9] Moustakas, N. G., Kontos, A. G., Likodimos, V., Katsaros, F., Boukos, N., Tsoutsou, D, Falaras, P. (2013). Inorganic–organic core–shell titania nanoparticles for efficient visible light activated photocatalysis. Applied catalysis B: Environmental, 130, 14-24.
[10] Zhang, G., Qin, L., Meng, Q., Fan, Z., Wu, D. (2013). Aerobic SMBR/reverse osmosis system enhanced by Fenton oxidation for advanced treatment of old municipal landfill leachate. Bioresource technology, 142, 261-268.
[11] Lee, K. M., Lai, C. W., Ngai, K. S., Juan, J. C. (2016). Recent developments of zinc oxide based photocatalyst in water treatment technology: a review. Water research, 88, 428-448.
[12] Zhang, J., Fu, D., Xu, Y., Liu, C. (2010). Optimization of parameters on photocatalytic degradation of chloramphenicol using TiO2 as photocatalyst by response surface methodology. Journal of environmental sciences, 22(8), 1281-1289.
 [13] Liu, P., Xu, Z., Ma, X., Peng, Z., Xiao, M., Sui, Y. (2016). Removal of Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether via ZnO-AgCl Nanocomposite Photocatalyst. Materials research, 19(3), 680-685.
[14] Mansouri, M., Nademi, M., Olya, M. E., Lotfi, H. (2017). Study of Methyl tert-butyl Ether (MTBE) Photocatalytic Degradation with UV/TiO2-ZnO-CuO Nanoparticles. Journal of chemical health risks, 7(1). 19-32
[15] Pirkarami, A., Olya, M. E., Farshid, S. R. (2014). UV/Ni–TiO2 nanocatalyst for electrochemical removal of dyes considering operating costs. Water Resource and industry, 5, 9-20.
[16] Saien, J., Khezrianjoo, S. (2008). Degradation of the fungicide carbendazim in aqueous solutions with UV/TiO2 process: optimization, kinetics and toxicity studies. Journal of hazardous materials, 157(2), 269-276.
[17] Eslami, A., Nasseri, S., Yadollahi, B., Mesdaghinia, A., Vaezi, F., Nabizadeh, R., Nazmara, S. (2008). Photocatalytic degradation of methyl tert‐butyl ether (MTBE) in contaminated water by ZnO nanoparticles. Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology, 83(11), 1447-1453.
[18] Zhou, M., Yu, J., Cheng, B. (2006). Effects of Fe-doping on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 powders prepared by an ultrasonic method. Journal of hazardous materials, 137(3), 1838-1847.
[19] An, T., An, J., Yang, H., Li, G., Feng, H., Nie, X. (2011). Photocatalytic degradation kinetics and mechanism of antivirus drug-lamivudine in TiO2 dispersion. Journal of hazardous materials, 197, 229-236.
[20] Samaei, M. R., Maleknia, H., Azhdarpoor, A. (2016). A comparative study of removal of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from aquatic environments through advanced oxidation methods of H2O2/nZVI, H2O2/nZVI/ultrasound, and H2O2/nZVI/UV. Desalination and water treatment, 57(45), 21417-21427.
[21] Moradi, H., Sharifnia, S., Rahimpour, F. (2015). Photocatalytic decolorization of reactive yellow 84 from aqueous solutions using ZnO nanoparticles supported on mineral LECA. Materials chemistry and physics, 158, 38-44.
[22] Hu, Q., Zhang, C., Wang, Z., Chen, Y., Mao, K., Zhang, X., Zhu, M. (2008). Photodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. Journal of hazardous materials, 154(1), 795-803.
[23] Safari, M., Nikazar, M., Dadvar, M. (2013). Photocatalytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Fe-TiO2 nanoparticles. Journal of industrial and engineering chemistry, 19(5), 1697-1702. 
Volume 2, Issue 3
July 2016
Pages 127-135
  • Receive Date: 14 July 2016
  • Revise Date: 03 January 2017
  • Accept Date: 17 January 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 April 2017