Investigation of dissipation flow in the urban Canyon

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ilam university

2 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ilam, Ilam, Iran

3 Department of Chemical Technologies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), P.O. Box 33535111, Tehran, Iran


With the wind permanent flow in the cities, obtaining the minimal pollution in the environment is accessible. Different policies have been considered for optimization of cities such as attachment and or reduction of building parts like air-traps, ceiling forms and so on. Due to population growth in cities and the increasing need for resettlement these people in the cities, inevitably, to the high-rise buildings have gone. The people living in high-rise buildings to meet the needs of their vital urban open spaces are forced to use. To have knowledge about air pollution through buildings, the CFD based software of Envi-met is used. In this case, we can say that the best angle to transfer pollution is the angle of 30 degrees. Also in an ideal case with imposed changes in the form, we could enhance the problem by better navigation of inside wind of urban canyons into spaces between blocks of buildings that have the capacity to trap the particles. Final it is found that we may be able to have more optimal results for transition of pollutions by suitable orientation of blocks against the wind direction of blow.


Main Subjects

[1] Fenger, J. (1999). Urban air quality. Atmospheric environment, 33(29), 4877-4900.
[2] Colvile, R. N., Hutchinson, E. J., Mindell, J. S., Warren, R. F. (2001). The transport sector as a source of air pollution. Atmospheric environment, 35(9), 1537-1565.
[3] RM, M. G. (1999). Wind tunnel simulation study of the line source dispersion in the near-field of roadways under heterogeneous traffic conditions (Doctoral dissertation, Indian institute of technology, Delhi).
[4] Eskridge, Robert E., and S. Trivikrama Rao. (1986). "Turbulent diffusion behind vehicles: experimentally determined turbulence mixing parameters." Atmospheric environment 20(5) 851-860.
[5] Thaker, P., & Gokhale, S. (2016). The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons. Environmental pollution, 208, 161-169.
[6] Farrell, W. J., Cavellin, L. D., Weichenthal, S., Goldberg, M., Hatzopoulou, M. (2015). Capturing the urban canyon effect on particle number concentrations across a large road network using spatial analysis tools. Building and environment, 92, 328-334.
[7] Habilomatis, G., Chaloulakou, A. (2015). A CFD modeling study in an urban street canyon for ultrafine particles and population exposure: The intake fraction approach. Science of the total environment, 530, 227-232.
[8] Isyumov, N. (1993). Physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in complex settings, wind climate in cities. Proceedings of the NATO advance study institute at waldbrown, Germany.
[9] Nicholson, S. E. (1975). A pollution model for street-level air. Atmospheric environment (1967), 9(1), 19-31.
[10] Vardoulakis, S., Fisher, B. E., Pericleous, K., Gonzalez-Flesca, N. (2003). Modelling air quality in street canyons: a review. Atmospheric environment, 37(2), 155-182.
[11] Baratian-Ghorghi, Z., Kaye, N. B. (2013). The effect of canyon aspect ratio on flushing of dense pollutants from an isolated street canyon. Science of the total environment, 443, 112-122.
[12] Wania, A., Bruse, M., Blond, N., Weber, C. (2012). Analysing the influence of different street vegetation on traffic-induced particle dispersion using microscale simulations. Journal of environmental management, 94(1), 91-101.
[13] Hussain, M., Lee, B. E., & Sheffield Univ.(UK). Dept. of Building Science. (1980). An Investigation of Wind Forces on Three Dimensional Roughness Elements in a Simulated Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow: Part 3: the Effect of Central Model Height Variations Relative to the Surrounding Roughness Arrays. University of Sheffield Department of Building Science.
[14] Oke, T. R. (1988). Street design and urban canopy layer climate. Energy and buildings, 11(1), 103-113.
[15] Santamoris, M. (2000). Air Flow Characteristics in urban canyons. Department of Applied Physics, University of Athens, La Rochelle, Athens.
[16] Hunter, L. J., Johnson, G. T., Watson, I. D. (1992). An investigation of three-dimensional characteristics of flow regimes within the urban canyon. Atmospheric environment. Part B. Urban atmosphere, 26(4), 425-432.
[17] DePaul, F. T., Sheih, C. M. (1985). A tracer study of dispersion in an urban street canyon. Atmospheric environment, 19(4), 555-559.
[18] Nakamura, Y., & Oke, T. R. (1988). Wind, temperature and stability conditions in an east-west oriented urban canyon. Atmospheric environment, 22(12), 2691-2700.
[19] Hoydysh, W. G., Dabberdt, W. F. (1988). Kinematics and dispersion characteristics of flows in asymmetric street canyons. Atmospheric environment, 22(12), 2677-2689.
[20] Meroney, R. N. (1982). Turbulent diffusion near buildings. Engineering meteorology, Elsevier science publications, Amsterdam, pp. 481–525.
[21] Yamartino, R. J., Wiegand, G. (1986). Development and evaluation of simple models for the flow, turbulence and pollutant concentration fields within an urban street canyon. Atmospheric environment, 20(11), 2137-2156.
[22] Kastner-Klein, P., Fedorovich, E., Sini, J. F. O., Mestayer, P. G. (2000). Experimental and numerical verification of similarity concept for dispersion of car exhaust gases in urban street canyons. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 65(1-2), 353-361.
[23] Bruse, M., Fleer, H. (1998). Simulating surface–plant–air interactions inside urban environments with a three dimensional numerical model. Environmental modelling & software, 13(3), 373-384.
[24] Yamada, T., Mellor, G. (1975). A simulation of the Wangara atmospheric boundary layer data. Journal of the atmospheric sciences, 32(12), 2309-2329.
[25] Sievers, U., Mayer, I., & Zdunkowski, W. G. (1987). Numerische Simulation des urbanen Klimas mit einem zweidimensionalen Modell. II: Modellergebnisse. Meteorologische Rundschau, 40(3), 65-83.
[26] Businger, J. A., Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, Y., Bradley, E. F. (1971). Flux-profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. Journal of the atmospheric sciences, 28(2), 181-189.
[27] Hoydysh, W.G., Ogawa, Y., Griffiths, R.A., (1974). A scale model study of dispersion of pollution in street canyons, APCA Paper No. 74–157, 67th Annual Meeting of the Air pollution control association, Denver.
[28] Wedding, J. B., Lombardi, D. J., Cermak, J. E. (1977). A wind tunnel study of gaseous pollutants in city street canyons. Journal of the air pollution control association, 27(6), 557-566.
[29] Chang, P. C., Wang, P. N., Lin, A. (1971). Turbulent diffusion in a city street. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Air Pollution and Turbulent Diffusion, Las Cruces, New Mexico (pp. 137-144).
[30] Kovar-Panskus, A., Louka, P., Sini, J. F., Savory, E., Czech, M., Abdelqari, A., Toy, N. (2002). Influence of geometry on the mean flow within urban street canyons–a comparison of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Water, air and soil pollution: focus, 2(5-6), 365-380.
[31] Rafailidis, S., Pavageau, M., Schatzmann, M. (1995). Wind tunnel simulation of car emission dispersion in urban street canyons. Annalen der Meteorologie, Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft, Munich.
[32] Rafailidis, S. (1997). Influence of building areal density and roof shape on the wind characteristics above a town. Boundary-layer meteorology, 85(2), 255-271.