Adsorptive performance of sunflower seed ash as a novel biosorbent for the elimination of Congo red from aqueous solution

Document Type : Research Paper


1 R.M.K College of Engineering and Technology, Puduvoyal, Chennai-601206, India

2 St. Josephs College of Engineering, OMR, Chennai-600 119, India


This study investigated the adsorption of an azo dye called Congo red from aqueous solution. Ash prepared from sunflower seed waste was used as the adsorbent. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses were performed to characterize the prepared adsorbent. Based on the results of BET, the specific active surface area was about 102 m2/g, and the results of SEM indicated that the adsorbent surface had a very fine porosity that could be attributed to the presence of cellulosic materials in the adsorbent structure. In this study, the effect of the initial concentration of Congo red dye (10-50 mg/L), the concentration of adsorbent (1-5 g/L), and the processing time (10-240 min) on the rate of Congo red dye removal was investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of dye removal, i.e., 92%, was achieved at a dye concentration of 50 mg/L, an adsorbent concentration of 3 g/L, and a processing time of 180 min. Under these conditions, the amount of adsorbed dye per gram of the adsorbent was 15.5 mg/g. In addition, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models were also used for modeling. The modeling results indicated that the pseudo-second order model had a higher level of accuracy. Finally, washing adsorbent with different solvents (one molar sodium hydroxide, double distilled water, and ethanol) was investigated, the results indicated that the adsorbent washed with one molar sodium hydroxide had a proper performance after five times of reuse.

Graphical Abstract

Adsorptive performance of sunflower seed ash as a novel biosorbent for the elimination of Congo red from aqueous solution


Main Subjects

[1] Kumari, S., Chauhan, G. S., Ahn, J. H. (2016).Novel cellulose nanowhiskers-based polyurethane foam for rapid and persistent removal of methylene blue from its aqueous solutions.Chemical Engineering Journal, 304,728-736.‏
[2] You, L., Huang, C., Lu, F., Wang, A., Liu, X., Zhang, Q.(2018).‏Facile synthesis of high performance porous magnetic chitosan-polyethylenimine polymer composite for Congo red removal.International Journal of Biological Macromolecule,107, 1620-1628.
[3] Zhang, F., Ma, B., Jiang, X., Ji, Y. (2016). Dual function magnetic hydroxyapatite nanopowder for removal of malachite green and Congo red from aqueous solution.Powder Technology, 302, 207-214.
[4] Wanyonyi, W. C., Onyari, J. M., Shiundu, P. M.(2014).‏Adsorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions using roots of Eichhornia crassipes: kinetic and equilibrium studies.Energy Procedia,50, 862-869.
[5] Zhou, J., Lü, Q. F., Luo, J. J.(2017).‏Efficient removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution by rapid adsorption onto polypyrrole–based composites.Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 739-748.
[6] Pouretedal, H. R., Basati, S.(2015).Characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO, ZnS, ZnO/ZnS, CdO, CdS and CdO/CdS nanoparticles in mesoporous SBA-15.IranianJournal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 34(1), 11-19.
[7] Alaei, M., Mahjoub, A. R., Rashidi, A.(2012).Effect of WO3 nanoparticles on Congo red and rhodamine B photo degradation.Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 31(1), 23-29.
[8] Alaei, M., Mahjoub, A. R., Rashidi, A.(2012).Preparation of different WO3 nanostructures and comparison of their ability for Congo red photo degradation.Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 31(1), 31-36.
[9] Vaghela, S. S., Jethva, A. D., Mehta, B. B., Dave, S. P. (2005).‏Adimurthy, S., Ramachandraiah, G., Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.Environmental Science andTechnology, 39(8), 2848-2855.
[11] Bhat, S. A., Zafar, F., Mondal, A. H., Mirza, A. U., Haq, Q. M. R., Nishat, N.(2020). Efficient removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution by adsorbent films of polyvinyl alcohol/melamine-formaldehyde composite and bactericidal effects.Journal of Cleaner Production, 255, 120062.
‏[12] Gupta, V. K., Agarwal, S., Ahmad, R., Mirza, A., Mittal, J.(2020).‏Sequestration of toxic Congo red dye from aqueous solution using ecofriendly guar gum/activated carbon nanocomposite.International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 158, 1310-1318.
[13] Dai, H., Huang, Y., Zhang, H., Ma, L., Huang, H., Wu, J., Zhang, Y.(2020).‏Direct fabrication of hierarchically processed pineapple peel hydrogels for efficient Congo red adsorption.Carbohydrate Polymers, 230, 115599.
[14] Liu, J., Wang, N., Zhang, H., Baeyens, J.(2019).‏Adsorption of Congo red dye on FexCo3-xO4 nanoparticles.Journal of environmental management, 238, 473-483.
[15] Madan, S., Shaw, R., Tiwari, S., Tiwari, S. K. (2019).‏Adsorption dynamics of Congo red dye removal using ZnO functionalized high silica zeolitic particles.Applied Surface Science, 487, 907-917.
[16] Abukhadra, M. R., Adlii, A., Bakry, B. M.(2019).‏Green fabrication of bentonite/chitosan@ cobalt oxide composite (BE/CH@Co) of enhanced adsorption and advanced oxidation removal of Congo red dye and Cr (VI) from water.International journal of biological macromolecules, 126, 402-413.
[17] Lei, C., Zhu, X., Zhu, B., Yu, J., Ho, W.(2016).‏Hierarchical NiO–SiO2 composite hollow microspheres with enhanced adsorption affinity towards Congo red in water.Journal of colloid and interface science, 466, 238-246.
[18] Chen, R., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Zhang, Y., Wu, S., Li, F. (2014). Rapid hydrothermal synthesis of magnetic CoxNi1− xFe2O4 nanoparticles and their application on removal of Congo red. Chemical Engineering Journal, 242, 226-233.
[20] Bensalah, H., Younssi, S. A., Ouammou, M., Gurlo, A., Bekheet, M. F.(2020).‏Azo dye adsorption on an industrial waste-transformed hydroxyapatite adsorbent: Kinetics, isotherms, mechanism and regeneration studies.Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 8(3), 103807.
[21] Wekoye, J. N., Wanyonyi, W. C., Wangila, P. T.(2020).‏Tonui, M. K., Kinetic and equilibrium studies of Congo red dye adsorption on cabbage waste powder.Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2, 24-31.
[22] Al-Zoubi, H., Zubair, M., Manzar, M. S., Manda, A. A., Blaisi, N. I., Qureshi, A., Matani, A.(2020).‏Comparative adsorption of anionic dyes (Eriochrome black T and Congo red) onto jojoba residues: isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic studies.Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 45(9), 7275-7287.
[23] Said, A. E. A. A., Aly, A. A., Goda, M. N., Abd El-Aal, M., Abdelazim, M. (2020). Adsorptive remediation of Congo Red Dye in aqueous solutions using acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 28, 1129-1137.
[24] Li, Z., Hanafy, H., Zhang, L., Sellaoui, L., Netto, M.S., Oliveira, M.L., Seliem, M.K., Dotto, G.L., Bonilla-Petriciolet, A. and Li, Q.(2020). ‏Adsorption of Congo red and methylene blue dyes on an ashitaba waste and a walnut shell-based activated carbon from aqueous solutions: Experiments, characterization and physical interpretations.Chemical Engineering Journal, 388, 124263.
[25] Dbik, A., Bentahar, S., El Khomri, M., El Messaoudi, N., Lacherai, A.(2020).‏Adsorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solutions using tunics of the corm of the saffron.Materials Today: Proceedings, 22, 134-139.
[26] Kumari, R., Mohanta, J., Dey, B., Dey, S.(2019).‏Eucalyptus leaf .powder as an efficient scavenger for Congo red from water: Comprehensive batch and column investigation.Separation Science and Technology, 17, 1-13.
[27] Nodehi, R., Shayesteh, H., Kelishami, A. R.(2020).‏Enhanced adsorption of Congo red using cationic surfactant functionalized zeolite particles.Microchemical Journal, 153, 104281.
[29] Munagapati, V. S., Kim, D. S. (2016).‏Adsorption of anionic azo dye Congo red from aqueous solution by Cationic Modified Orange Peel Powder.Journal of Molecular Liquids, 220, 540-548.
[30] Abbas, M., Trari, M. (2015).‏Kinetic equilibrium and thermodynamic study on the removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto apricot stone.Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 98, 424-436.
[31] Mohmmadkhani, S., Yeganeh, J., Nazemi, S.(2016).Sunflower Waste Biomass as a Remarkable Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste Waters.International Journal of Health Studies, 2(3), 26-30.
[32] Osma, J. F., Saravia, V., Toca-Herrera, J. L., Couto, S.R.(2007).Sunflower seed shells: a novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions.Journal of Hazardous Materials,147(3), 900-905.
[33] Jalali, M., Aboulghazi, F.(2013).Sunflower stalk, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent for the removal of lead and cadmium from aqueous solutions.Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 15(4), 548-555.
[34] Thinakaran, N., Baskaralingam, P., Pulikesi, M., Panneerselvam, P., Sivanesan, S.(2008).Removal of Acid Violet 17 from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from sunflower seed hull.Journal of hazardous materials, 151(2-3), 316-322.
[35] Uygunoz, D., Demir, F., Ozen, M. Y., Derun, E. M.(2022).Sunflower waste manganese iron oxide composite for hazardous dye removal.Chemical Data Collections, 40, 100893.
[36] Harja, M., Buema, G., Bucur, D.(2022). Recent advances in removal of Congo red dye by adsorption using an industrial waste.Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-18.
[37] Saikumari, N., Preethi, T., Abarna, B., Rajarajeswari, G. R. (2019). Ecofriendly, green tea extract directed sol–gel synthesis of nano titania for photocatalytic application. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 30, 6820-6831.
[38] Arunlertaree, C., Kaewsomboon, W., Kumsopa, A., Pokethitiyook, P., Panyawathanakit, P. (2007).Removal of lead from battery manufacturing wastewater by egg shell.Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 29(3), 857-868.
[39] Han, R., Zhang, L., Song, C., Zhang, M., Zhu, H., Zhang, L.(2010). Characterization of modified wheat straw, kinetic and equilibrium study about copper ion and methylene blue adsorption in batch mode.Carbohydrate Polymers, 79(4), 1140-1149.
[40] Saikumari, N., Monish Dev, S., Avinaash Dev, S. (2020). Environmental sustainability of an ecosystem by biotemplated nano Titania.Advances in Environmental Technology,6(2), 91-98.
[41] Ronda, A., Martín-Lara, M. A., Calero, M.,(2013). Blázquez, G., Analysis of the kinetics of lead biosorption using native and chemically treated olive tree pruning.Ecological Engineering, 58, 278-285.
[43] Özcan, A., Özcan, A. S.(2005).Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto surfactant-modified sepiolite.Journal of Hazardous Materials, 125(1-3), 252-259.
[44] Ojedokun, A. T., Bello, O. S.(2017). Kinetic modeling of liquid-phase adsorption of Congo red dye using guava leaf-based activated carbon. Applied Water Science, 7(4), 1965-1977.
[45] Foroughi-Dahr, M., Abolghasemi, H., Esmaili, M., Shojamoradi, A., Fatoorehchi, H.(2015). Adsorption characteristics of Congo red from aqueous solution onto tea waste.Chemical Engineering Communications, 202(2), 181-193.
[46] Devi, V. S., Sudhakar, B., Prasad, K., Sunadh, P. J., Krishna, M.(2020). Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution onto Antigononleptopus leaf powder: equilibrium and kinetic modeling.Materials Today: Proceedings, 26, 3197-3206.
[47] Rehman, R., Manzoor, I., Mitu, L.(2018).Isothermal study of Congo red dye biosorptive removal from water by Solanum tuberosum and Pisum sativum peels in economical way.Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 32(2), 213-223.
[48] Litefti, K., Freire, M. S., Stitou, M., González-Álvarez, J.(2019). Adsorption of an anionic dye (Congo red) from aqueous solutions by pine bark.Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1-11. 10.1038/s41598-019-53046-z