Characterisation and source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter in an industrial cluster of Western India

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Research Scholar Civil Engineering Department S V National Institute Of Technology, Icchanath, Surat Gujarat, India

2 S V National Institute Of Technology


Pollution of atmospheric particulates is a severe environmental problem of universal concern. Fine and ultra-fine particulates harbour the ability to enter the bloodstream and carry with them trace metals like copper, cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that can cause toxic and carcinogenic effects. This necessitates an increased emphasis on the detailed chemical characterisation of atmospheric particulates. In the current study, six locations were identified in Vapi industrial area. For these six locations, coarse particulate matter (PM10) samples were collected simultaneously for 20 days, and Elemental Carbon (EC), Organic Carbon (OC), and Water-soluble ions (WSIs), along with major and trace elements were determined. The concentration of PM10 is, observed to be in the range 115.88 – 226.5 μg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS standard value of 100 ug/m3. The chemical analysis results suggested contribution from total carbon, water-soluble ions, and elements to be varying between 45 to 48%, 20 to 23%, and 29 to 33% of PM10 mass respectively. Chemical mass balance (CMB) and Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) models are employed separately for carrying out source apportionment studies. CMB demonstrated influence from various sources as 35% from fossil fuel combustion including industries, 22.90% from crustal or soil dust, 19.12% from biomass burning, 16.18% from vehicular emissions, and 6.79 % from secondary particulates. PMF receptor model showed the influence from various sources as 25.75 % from fossil fuel combustion, 22.13 % from crustal or soil dust, 16.95% from vehicular emissions, 14.53% from biomass burning, 11.49% from industrial emissions, and 9.16% from secondary aerosols. Thus, this study shall help in formulating pollution abetment strategies.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 09 September 2023
  • Receive Date: 23 October 2022
  • Revise Date: 20 August 2023
  • Accept Date: 09 September 2023
  • First Publish Date: 09 September 2023