Social cost of CO2 emissions in Tehran waste management scenarios and using life cycle assessment to select the scenario with the least impact on global warming

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Climate change includes global warming driven by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Tehran, Iran, has a population of 13 million (2017) and produces about 13,000 tons of municipal solid waste per day and 4.7 million tons annually. This study used the life cycle assessment (LCA) method to calculate all the emissions in different scenarios for Tehran's waste management. The IWM model was used for Phase II of the LCA. The results of the proposed scenarios showed that the highest emission was from greenhouse gases (GHG), which were9.6, 3.2, and 2.7 million tons in the first, second, and third scenarios, respectively. The IPCC reports and the results from the life cycle inventories were used to calculate the social cost analysis for the scenarios based on the CO2 equivalents. The third scenario caused a 71.8% and 17.2% reduction in terms of social costs compared to the first and second scenarios, respectively. Thus, according to the importance of greenhouse gases in global warming, employing a third scenario in the waste management system could effectively reduce greenhouse gases in Tehran. 


Main Subjects

[1] Albanna, M. (2012). Solid waste management options and their impacts on climate change and human health. In environmental protection strategies for sustainable development (pp. 499-528). Springer, Dordrecht.
[2] Gentil, E. (2011). Life-cycle modelling of waste management in Europe: tools, climate change and waste prevention. DTU Environment. Technical University of Denmark. Lyngby, Denmark.
[3] White, P., Dranke, M., Hindle, P. (2012). Integrated solid waste management: a lifecycle inventory. Springer science and business media.
[4] Damgaard, A. (2010). Implementation of life cycle assessment models in solid waste management. Department of environmental engineering. technical university of Denmark. Lyngby, Denmark.
[5] Khandelwal, H., Dhar, H., Thalla, A. K., & Kumar, S. (2019). Application of life cycle assessment in municipal solid waste management: A worldwide critical review. Journal of cleaner production, 209, 630-654.
[6] International standard organization. (1997). ISO 14040: Environmental management-life cycle assessment-principles and framework.
[7] ISO-14044. (2006). Environmental management—life cycle assessment—requirements and guidelines. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
[8] ISO-14040. (2006). Environmental management-life cycle assessment-principles and framework. International organization for standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
[9] Klüppel, H. J. (1998). ISO 14041: Environmental management--life cycle assessment goal and scope definition inventory analysis. The International Journal of life cycle assessment, 3(6), 301.
[10] Ryding, S. O. (1999). ISO 14042 Environmental management* Life cycle assessment* life cycle impact assessment. The International Journal of life cycle assessment, 4(6), 307.
[11] Abduli, M. A. (1995). Solid waste management in Tehran. Waste management and research, 13(5), 519-531.
[12] TWMO. (2017). Tehran Waste Management Organization.
[13] Cirko, C., Edgecombe, F., Gagnon, M., Perry, G., Haight, M., Jackson, D., Love, G., Kelleher, M., Massicotte, S., Schubert, J. (2004). EPIC/CSR Integrated Solid Waste Management Tools: Project Report. University of Waterloo, Canada.