Multi-objective optimization of pyrolysis process of Prosopis farcta under non-isothermal conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Biosystems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


Biochar is a recalcitrant substance that is produced through the pyrolysis process. The location of this study was Ahvaz in the central part of Khuzestan Province, Iran. To produce biochar, the biomass of Prosopis farcta was pyrolyzed at a temperature of 400°C to 800°C using the heating rate of 3 to 7 °C/min. Afterward, the electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, pH, specific surface area, and organic carbon of the biochar were recorded by employing standard methods. The pyrolysis factors such as temperature and heating rate were optimized using the Response Surface technique. Based on the results obtained, the temperature of the process was the most effective variable on the biochar characteristics. Besides, the temperature had a more substantial effect on the structure of the biochar than the heating rate. Also, the modeling results indicated that by enhancing the pyrolysis temperature, the electrical conductivity (EC)/pH of the produced biochar was enhanced mainly due to the concentration effect and reduction of acidic functional groups. With the strengthening of the pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, the organic carbon and specific surface area of the biochar were enhanced, while the cation exchange capacity decreased. According to the obtained results, the best model was found to be a quadratic model. In addition, the model for the EC parameter with the P-value of 0.0004 had the lowest effect compared with other studied pyrolysis factors. In general, the conditions of the pyrolysis process had a remarkable impact on the biochar characteristics; therefore, the effectiveness of biochar can be regarded as an organic amendment. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present work is the first report assessing the effect of heating rate/ temperature on the biochar characteristics produced from Prosopis farcta.  


Main Subjects

[1] Abbaspour, A., Asghari, H. R. (2019). Effect of biochar on nitrogen retention in soil under corn plant inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Advances in environmental technology, 5(3), 133-140.
[2] Ahmad, M., Lee, S. S., Dou, X., Mohan, D., Sung, J. K., Yang, J. E., Ok, Y. S. (2012). Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover-and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water. Bioresource technology, 118, 536-544.
[3] Naeem, M. A., Khalid, M., Ahmad, Z., Naveed, M. (2016). Low pyrolysis temperature biochar improves growth and nutrient availability of maize on typic calciargid. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 47(1), 41-51.
[4] Bridgwater, A. V., Carson, P., Coulson, M. (2007). A comparison of fast and slow pyrolysis liquids from mallee. International journal of global energy issues, 27(2), 204-216.
[5] Daghaghele, S., Kiasat, A. R., Safieddin Ardebili, S. M., Mirzajani, R. (2021). Intensification of Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Moringa Oleifera Leaves Using Ultrasound-Assisted Approach: BBD-RSM Design. International journal of fruit science, 21(1), 693-705.
[6] Dhaundiyal, A., Atsu, D., Toth, L. (2020). Physico-chemical assessment of torrefied Eurasian pinecones. Biotechnology for biofuels, 13(1), 1-20.
[7] Hossain, M. K., Strezov, V., Chan, K. Y., Ziolkowski, A., Nelson, P. F. (2011). Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar. Journal of environmental management, 92(1), 223-228.
[8] Joseph, S., Peacocke, C., Lehmann, J., Munroe, P. (2009). Developing a biochar classification and test methods. Biochar for environmental management: science and technology, 1, 107-126.
[9] Keiluweit, M., Nico, P. S., Johnson, M. G., Kleber, M. (2010). Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar). Environmental science and technology, 44(4), 1247-1253.
[10] Khademalrasoul, A., Naveed, M., Heckrath, G., Kumari, K. G. I. D., de Jonge, L. W., Elsgaard, L., Iversen, B. V. (2014). Biochar effects on soil aggregate properties under no-till maize. Soil science, 179(6), 273-283.
[11] Khademalrasoul, A., Kuhn, N. J., Elsgaard, L., Hu, Y., Iversen, B. V., Heckrath, G. (2019). Short-term effects of biochar application on soil loss during a rainfall-runoff simulation. Soil science, 184(1), 17-24.
[12] Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (2015). Biochar for environmental management: an introduction (pp. 33-46). Routledge.
[13] Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (2009) Biochar for environmental management, Science and technology, pp. 405.  London: Earthscan publishing.
[14] Lehmann, J., da Silva, J. P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., Glaser, B. (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and soil, 249(2), 343-357.
[15] Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., Rondon, M. (2006). Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems–a review. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 11(2), 403-427.
[16] Lehmann, J., Lan, Z., Hyland, C., Sato, S., Solomon, D. and Ketterings, Q. M. (2005) Long term dynamics of phosphorus and retention in manure amended soils. Environmental science and technology, 39 (17), 6672-6680.
[17] Nematzadeh, M., Samimi, A., Shokrollahzadeh, S., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D. (2019). Bentazon removal from aqueous solution by reverse osmosis; optimization of effective parameters using response surface methodology. Advances in environmental technology, 5(4), 193-201.
[18] Niebes, D., Schobel, S., Schneider, R., Schróder, D. (2001). Sprinkling experiments to characterize the influence of land coverage, land use and different soil types on runoff generation. In geophysical research abstracts (Vol. 3).
[19] Novak, J. M., Busscher, W. J., Watts, D. W., Amonette, J. E., Ippolito, J. A., Lima, I. M., Schomberg, H. (2012). Biochars impact on soil-moisture storage in an ultisol and two aridisols. Soil science, 177(5), 310-320.
[20] Ouyang, L., Wang, F., Tang, J., Yu, L., Zhang, R. (2013). Effects of biochar amendment on soil aggregates and hydraulic properties. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 13(4), 991-1002.
[21] Pandian, M., Sivapirakasam, S. P., Udayakumar, M. (2011). Investigation on the effect of injection system parameters on performance and emission characteristics of a twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine fuelled with pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend using response surface methodology. Applied energy, 88(8), 2663-2676.
[22] Pellicone, G., Caloiero, T., Guagliardi, I. (2019). The De Martonne aridity index in Calabria (Southern Italy). Journal of mMaps, 15(2), 788-796.
[23] Rajkovich, S., Enders, A., Hanley, K., Hyland, C., Zimmerman, A. R., Lehmann, J. (2012). Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and fertility of soils, 48(3), 271-284.
 [24] Ardebili, S. M. S., Solmaz, H., Calam, A., İpci, D. (2021). Modelling of performance, emission, and combustion of an HCCI engine fueled with fusel oil-diethylether fuel blends as a renewable fuel. Fuel, 290, 120017.
[25] Ardebili, S. M. S., Solmaz, H., Mostafaei, M. (2019). Optimization of fusel oil–Gasoline blend ratio to enhance the performance and reduce emissions. Applied thermal engineering, 148, 1334-1345.
[26] Ardebili, S. M. S., Taghipoor, A., Solmaz, H., Mostafaei, M. (2020). The effect of nano-biochar on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with fusel oil-diesel fuel. Fuel, 268, 117356.
[27] Singh, B., Dolk, M. M., Shen, Q., Camps-Arbestain, M. (2017). Biochar pH, electrical conductivity and liming potential. Biochar: A guide to analytical methods.
[28] Singh, B., Singh, B. P., Cowie, A. L. (2010). Characterisation and evaluation of biochars for their application as a soil amendment. Soil research, 48(7), 516-525.
[29] Shaaban, A., Se, S. M., Dimin, M. F., Juoi, J. M., Husin, M. H. M., Mitan, N. M. M. (2014). Influence of heating temperature and holding time on biochars derived from rubber wood sawdust via slow pyrolysis. Journal of analytical and applied pyrolysis, 107, 31-39.
[30] Solmaz, H., Ardebili, S. M. S., Calam, A., Yılmaz, E., İpci, D. (2021). Prediction of performance and exhaust emissions of a CI engine fueled with multi-wall carbon nanotube doped biodiesel-diesel blends using response surface method. Energy, 227, 120518.
[31] Tamri, Z., Yazdi, A. V., Haghighi, M. N., Abbas-Abadi, M. S., Heidarinasab, A. (2018). The effect of temperature, heating rate, initial cross-linking and zeolitic catalysts as key process and structural parameters on the degradation of natural rubber (NR) to produce the valuable hydrocarbons. Journal of analytical and applied pyrolysis, 134, 35-42.
[32] Vasseghian, Y. (2015). Modeling and optimization of oil refinery wastewater chemical oxygen demand removal in dissolved air flotation system by response surface methodology. Advances in environmental technology1(3), 129-135.
[33] Suliman, W., Harsh, J. B., Abu-Lail, N. I., Fortuna, A. M., Dallmeyer, I., Garcia-Perez, M. (2016). Influence of feedstock source and pyrolysis temperature on biochar bulk and surface properties. Biomass and bioenergy84, 37-48.
[34] Walkley, A., Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science, 37(1), 29-38.
[35] Wu, W., Yang, M., Feng, Q., McGrouther, K., Wang, H., Lu, H., Chen, Y. (2012). Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment. Biomass and bioenergy, 47, 268-276.
[36] Wu, H., Qi, Y., Dong, L., Zhao, X., Liu, H. (2019). Revealing the impact of pyrolysis temperature on dissolved organic matter released from the biochar prepared from Typha orientalis. Chemosphere, 228, 264-270.
[37] Zhao, L., Li, Q., Xu, X., Kong, W., Li, X., Su, Y., Gao, B. (2016). A novel Enteromorpha based hydrogel optimized with Box–Behnken response surface method: synthesis, characterization and swelling behaviors. Chemical engineering journal, 287, 537-544.