Seasonal variations of gaseous air pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3, CO) and particulates (PM2.5, PM10) in Gazipur: an industrial city in Bangladesh

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Environmental Science and Resource Management, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh

2 School of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China

3 Department of Environmental Technology, Jhenaidah Polytechnic Institute, Bangladesh


The present study assessed the impacts of seasonal variation on the atmospheric abundance of gaseous air pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3, CO) and particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) at Gazipur city. The air pollution data was collected from the study area using a Continuous Air Monitoring Station (CAMS) (CAMS-4, Gazipur) of DoE from October 2017 to September 2018. The highest concentrations of air pollutants were found in the winter (PM2.5=208 μg/m3, PM10=300 μg/m3, NO2=45.1 ppb, CO=3.91 ppm, O3=4.17 ppb) as opposed to those of the post-monsoon (PM2.5=133μg/m3, PM10=169 μg/m3, NO2=23.52 ppb, CO=2.25 ppm, O3=7.71 ppb), pre-monsoon (PM2.5=115 μg/m3, PM10=216 μg/m3, NO2=33.5 ppb, CO=1.75 ppm, O3=4.23 ppb), and monsoon (PM2.5=37.5 μg/m3, PM10=85.6 μg/m3, NO2=13.9 ppb, CO=0.84 ppm, O3=4.23 ppb). The highest concentration of five air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, CO, O3)indicated that the higher pollutant load in the winter was associated with large-scale polluted air transported from the brick kiln at a distance of 5-7 km at the sampling site. The wind-rose data analysis indicated that most of the air during the winter season came to the sampling site from the northern part of the Gazipur district, from the brickfield zones. In contrast, a reverse relationship between the rainfall and atmospheric pollution, temperature, and atmospheric pollution load was observed during the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter. This finding revealed that the lowest concentration of air pollutants during monsoon was associated with the washout effect of precipitation on atmospheric pollutants. A moderate correlation (R2=0.58) between CO and O3 pollutants during the study indicated their atmospheric origin by photochemical reactions was associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PM2.5 showed a positive correlation with PM10 (R2=0.84), indicating that both PM2.5 and PM10 were produced from similar pathways of fossil fuel combustion by automobiles and industrial activities. Further, the air quality index (AQI) analysis showed unhealthy atmospheric conditions throughout the year for city dwellers around the study area.


Main Subjects

[1]. Mannucci, P. M., Franchini, M. (2017). Health effects of ambient air pollution in developing countries. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(9), 1048.
[2]. Maji, K. J., Dikshit, A. K., Deshpande, A. (2017). Assessment of City Level Human Health Impact and Corresponding Monetary Cost Burden due to Air Pollution in India Taking Agra as a Model City. Aerosol and air quality research, 17, 831-842.
[3] Seyyednejad, S. M., Motamedi, H., Lordifard, P. (2017). Biochemical changes of Conocarpus erectus (combretaceae) respond to gas refinery air pollution as an air pollution indicator. Pollution, 3(2), 185-190.
[4] Kanada, M., Dong, L., Fujita, T., Fujii, M., Inoue, T., Hirano, Y., Geng, Y. (2013). Regional disparity and cost-effective SO2 pollution control in China: A case study in 5 mega-cities. Energy policy, 61, 1322-1331.
[5] World Health Organization. (2016). Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease.
[6] Legge, A. H., Krupa, S. V. (1990). Acid Deposition: sulphur and nitrogen oxide. Lewis, Chelsea, MI.
[7] Houghton, R. A. (1999). The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850–1990. Tellus B, 51(2), 298-313.
[8] Protection E. (1996). Year-book (in Polish). Warszawa: GlownyUrzadStatystyczny. p. 169.
[9] Yu, I. T. S., Qiu, H., Wang, X., Tian, L., Tse, L. A. (2013). The synergy between particles and nitrogen dioxide on emergency hospital admissions for cardiac diseases in Hong Kong. International journal of cardiology, 168(3), 2831-2836.
[10] Hasan, M. R., Hossain, M. A., Sarjana, U., Hasan, M. R. (2016). Status of air quality and survey of particulate matter pollution in Pabna city, Bangladesh. American journal of engineering research, 5(11), 18-22.
[11] World Health Organization (2016). Household air pollution and health. Retrieved from
[12] World Health Organization (WHO) (2016). Household air pollution and health. Retrieved from
[13] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2016). Particulate Matter (PM). Retrieved from
[14] Heal, M. R., Heaviside, C., Doherty, R. M., Vieno, M., Stevenson, D. S., Vardoulakis, S. (2013). Health burdens of surface ozone in the UK for a range of future scenarios. Environment international, 61, 36-44.
[15] Hu, J., Wang, Y., Ying, Q., Zhang, H. (2014). Spatial and temporal variability of PM2. 5 and PM10 over the North China Plain and the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmospheric environment,‌95, 598-609.
[16] Chen, R., Huang, W., Wong, C. M., Wang, Z., Thach, T. Q., Chen, B., CAPES Collaborative Group. (2012). Short-term exposure to sulfur dioxide and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities: the China air pollution and health effects study (CAPES). Environmental research, 118, 101-106.
[17] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) (2015). Population census 2015: Community report, narayanganj: Bangladesh bureau of statistics, Statistics division, Ministry of planning, Government of the people’s republic of Bangladesh (GoB).
[18] Clean Air and Sustainable Environment (CASE) (2016). Air quality status and trends: 2013 2015. Department of environment: Clean air and sustainable environment project. Government of the people’s republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of environment and forest.
[19] Ahmmed, K. M. T., Begum, D. A. (2010, September). Air pollution aspects of Dhaka city. In proceedings of international conference on environmental aspects of Bangladesh (ICEAB10).
[20] Islam, M. M., Afrin, S., Ahmed, T., Ali, M. A. (2015). Meteorological and seasonal influences in ambient air quality parameters of Dhaka city. Journal of civil engineering, 43(1), 67-77.
[21] Srinivas, J., Purushotham, A. V. (2013). Determination of air quality index status in industrial areas of Visakhapatnam, India. Research journal of engineering sciences, 2(6), 13-24.
[22] Hoque, M. M., Begum, B. A., Shawan, A. M., Ahmed, S. J. (2015). Particulate matter concentrations in the air of Dhaka and Gazipur city during winter: A comparative study. ICPSDT-2015) (August 19-20, 2015), Department of physics, CUET.
[23] Sikder, H.A., M. Nasiruddin, J. Suthawaree, S. Kato, Kajii, Y. (2010). Observation of atmospheric pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, PA03. Proc. of international conference on environmental aspects of Bangladesh.
[24] Huang, R. J., Zhang, Y., Bozzetti, C., Ho, K. F., Cao, J. J., Han, Y., Prévôt, A. S. (2014). High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China. Nature, 514(7521), 218-222.
[25] Chakraborty, A., Gupta, T., Tripathi, S. N. (2016). Chemical composition and characteristics of ambient aerosols and rainwater residues during Indian summer monsoon: Insight from aerosol mass spectrometry. Atmospheric environment, 136, 144-155.
[26] Azad, A. K., Kitada, T. (1998). Characteristics of the air pollution in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh, in winter. Atmospheric environment, 32(11), 1991-2005.
[27] Kgabi, N. A., Sehloho, R. M. (2012). Seasonal variations of tropospheric ozone concentrations. Global journal of science frontier research chemistry, 12, 21-29.
[28] ABDUL‐WAHAB, S. A., Bouhamra, W. S. (2004). Diurnal variations of air pollution from motor vehicles in a residential area. International journal of environmental studies, 61(1), 73-98.
[29] Sahu, L. K., Lal, S. (2006). Distributions of C2–C5 NMHCs and related trace gases at a tropical urban site in India. Atmospheric environment, 40(5), 880-891.
[30] Nam, E., Kishan, S., Baldauf, R. W., Fulper, C. R., Sabisch, M., Warila, J. (2010). Temperature effects on particulate matter emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles. Environmental science and technology, 44(12), 4672-4677.
 [31] Giri, D., Adhikary, P., Murthy, V. (2008). The influence of meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations in Kathmandu Valley. International journal of environmental research, 2(1), 49-60.
[32] Guo, L. C., Bao, L. J., She, J. W., Zeng, E. Y. (2014). Significance of wet deposition to removal of atmospheric particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Guangzhou, China. Atmospheric environment, 83, 136-144.
[33] Hossen, M. A., Hoque, A. (2016). Variation of ambient air quality scenario in Chittagong City: A case study of air pollution, 8, 1-9.