Modification of piston bowl geometry and injection strategy, and investigation of EGR composition for a DME-burning direct injection engine

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Faculty of Chemical Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan University of Advanced Technology, Quchan, Iran

Abstract

The amount of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has reached a critical state due to an increase in industrial development and the rapid growth of automobile industries that use fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels produces harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen monoxide (NO), soot, particulate matter (PM), etc. The use of Dimethyl Ether (DME) biofuel in diesel engines or other combustion processes have been highly regarded by researchers. Studies show that the use of pure DME in automotive engines will be possible in the near future. The present work evaluated the environmental and performance effects of changing the injection strategy (time and temperature), piston bowl geometry, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) composition for a DME-burning engine. The modification of piston bowl parameters and engine simulation were numerically performed by using AVL fire CFD code. For model validation, the calculated mean pressure and rate of heat released (RHR) were compared to the experimental data and the results showed a good agreement (under a 70% load and 1200-rpm engine speed). It was found that retarding injection timing (reduction in in-cylinder temperature, consequently) caused a reduction in NO emissions and increased soot formation, reciprocally; this occurred because of a reduction in temperature and a lower soot oxidation in the combustion chamber. It became clear that 3 deg before top dead center (BTDC) was the appropriate injection timing for the DME-burning heavy duty diesel engine running under 1200 rpm. Also, the parametrical modification of the piston bowl geometry and the simultaneous decrease of Tm (piston bowl depth) and R3 (bowl inner radius) lengths were associated with lower exhaust NO emissions. For the perfect utilization of DME fuel in an HD diesel engine, the suggested proper lengths of Tm and R3 were 0.008 and 0.0079 m, respectively. Furthermore, various EGR compositions for the reduction of exhaust NO were investigated. The simulation results showed that a 0.2 EGR composition led to a reduction in the exhaust NO by 37%.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Khamehchiyan, M., Nikoudel, M. R., Boroumandi, M. (2011). Identification of hazardous waste landfill site: a case study from Zanjan province, Iran. Environmental earth sciences, 64(7), 1763-1776.

[2] Kontos TD, Komilis DP, Halvadakis CP. (2005). Siting MSW landfills with a spatial multiple criteria analysis methodology. Waste management. 25(8), 818-32.

[3]. Zamorano, M., Molero, E., Hurtado, Á., Grindlay, A., Ramos, Á. (2008). Evaluation of a municipal landfill site in Southern Spain with GIS-aided methodology. Journal of hazardous materials, 160(2), 473-481.

[4] Tchobanoglous, G., Theisen, H., Vigil, S. (1993). Integrated solid waste management: engineering principles and management issues. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.

[5] Wang G, Qin L, Li G, Chen L. (2009) Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China. Journal of environmental management. 90(8), 2414-2421.

[6] Sumathi, V. R., Natesan, U., Sarkar, C. (2008). GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill. Waste management, 28(11), 2146-2160.
[7] Lukasheh, A. F., Droste, R. L., & Warith, M. A. (2001). Review of expert system (ES), geographic information system (GIS), decision support system (DSS), and their applications in landfill design and management. Waste Management & Research, 19(2), 177-185. 
[8] Javaheri, H., Nasrabadi, T., Jafarian, M. H., Rowshan, G. R., Khoshnam, H. (2006). Site selection of municipal solid waste landfills using analytical hierarchy process method in a geographical information technology environment in Giroft. Journal of environmental health science and engineering, 3(3), 177-184.

[9] Baban, S. M., Flannagan, J. (1998). Developing and implementing GIS-assisted constraints criteria for planning landfill sites in the UK. Planning practice and research, 13(2), 139-151.

[10] Church, R. L. (2002). Geographical information systems and location science. Computers and operations research, 29(6), 541-562.

[11] Chaudhary, P., Chhetri, S. K., Joshi, K. M., Shrestha, B. M., Kayastha, P. (2016). Application of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in the GIS interface for suitable fire site selection: A case study from Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal. Socio-economic planning sciences, 53, 60-71.

[12] Kumar, S., Bansal, V. K. (2016). A GIS-based methodology for safe site selection of a building in a hilly region. Frontiers of architectural research,5(1), 39-51.

[13] Vasileiou, M., Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D. G. (2017). GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis for site selection of hybrid offshore wind and wave energy systems in Greece. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 73, 745-757.

[14] Nas, B., Cay, T., Iscan, F., Berktay, A. (2010). Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 160(1), 491-500.

[15] Geneletti, D. (2010). Combining stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation to select and rank inert landfill sites. Waste management, 30(2), 328-337.

[16] Chen, Y., Yu, J., Khan, S. (2010). Spatial sensitivity analysis of multi-criteria weights in GIS-based land suitability evaluation. Environmental modelling and software, 25(12), 1582-1591.

[17] Al-Hanbali, A., Alsaaideh, B., Kondoh, A. (2011). Using GIS-based weighted linear combination analysis and remote sensing techniques to select optimum solid waste disposal sites within Mafraq City, Jordan. Journal of geographic information system, 3, 267-278.

[18] Siddiqui, M. Z., Everett, J. W., Vieux, B. E. (1996). Landfill siting using geographic information systems: a demonstration. Journal of environmental engineering, 122(6), 515-523.

[19] Charnpratheep, K., Zhou, Q., Garner, B. (1997). Preliminary landfill site screening using fuzzy geographical information systems. Waste management and research, 15(2), 197-215.

[20] Al-Jarrah, O., Abu-Qdais, H. (2006). Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system. Waste management, 26(3), 299-306.

[21] Chang, N. B., Parvathinathan, G., Breeden, J. B. (2008). Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region. Journal of environmental management, 87(1), 139-153.

[22] Sharifi, M., Hadidi, M., Vessali, E., Mosstafakhani, P., Taheri, K., Shahoie, S., Khodamoradpour, M. (2009). Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. Waste management, 29(10), 2740-2758
[23] Moghaddas, N. H., & Namaghi, H. H. (2011). Hazardous waste landfill site selection in Khorasan Razavi province, northeastern Iran. Arabian journal of geosciences, 4(1-2), 103-113.

[24] Abessi, O., Saeedi, M. (2010). Hazardous waste landfill siting using GIS technique and analytical hierarchy process. Environment Asia, 3(2), 47-53.

[25] Clarke, K. C. (1986). Advances in geographic information systems.Computers, environment and urban systems, 10(3-4), 175-184.

[26] Maliene, V., Grigonis, V., Palevicius, V., Griffiths, S. (2011). Geographic information system: Old principles with new capabilities. Urban Design International, 16(1), 1-6.

[27] Goodchild, M. F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GIScience in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 1, 3-20.

[28] Tomlinson, R. F. (1987). Current and potential uses of geographical information systems The North American experience. International journal of geographical information system, 1(3), 203-218.

[29] Bhowmick, P., Mukhopadhyay, S., Sivakumar, V. (2014). A review on GIS based Fuzzy and Boolean logic modelling approach to identify the suitable sites for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. Scholars Journal of engineering and technology, 2, 316-319.

[30] Bonham-Carter, G. F. (1994). Geographic information systems for geoscientists-modeling with GIS. Pergamon Press, New York.

[31] Celik, I. B. (1999). Introductory turbulence modeling. Western Virginia university.

[32] Colin, O., Benkenida, A. (2004). The 3-zones extended coherent flame model (ECFM3Z) for computing premixed/diffusion combustion. Oil and gas science and technology, 59(6), 593-609.

[33] Turner, M. R., Sazhin, S. S., Healey, J. J., Crua, C., Martynov, S. B. (2012). A breakup model for transient Diesel fuel sprays. Fuel, 97, 288-305.

[34] Dukowicz, J. K. (1980). A particle-fluid numerical model for liquid sprays. Journal of computational Physics, 35(2), 229-253.

[35] Nanthagopal, K., Ashok, B., Raj, R. T. K. (2016). Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine. Energy conversion and management, 116, 165-173.