Keratin nanoparticles: synthesis and application for Cu(II) removal

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran, Iran

2 Biotechnology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


A straightforward procedure to synthesize keratin nanoparticles (KNP) from chicken feathers was introduced. The characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles was done using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR analysis revealed no significant chemical change after the nanoparticle synthesis. TEM imaging indicated the synthesis of KNPs with a spherical morphology and mean size of 42 nm. The DLS results indicated that the synthesized KNPs were stable in aqueous media by having a zetapotential of lower than -30 mV. The produced KNPs were then evaluated for the biosorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions. The analyzed adsorption isotherm data revealed the change from a Redlich-Peterson isotherm to a Langmuir one by increasing the biosorbent dosage, which could be attributed to the more prepared adsorption sites. The experiments of the effect of the biosorbent dosage suggested the best removal at a KNP dose of 3.0 g/L. At this dosage, the maximum Cu (II) adsorption capacity and Langmuir constant were 50 mg/g and 10.8×10-3 L/mg, respectively; the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order model. 


Main Subjects

[1] Farooq, U., Kozinski, J. A., Khan, M. A., Athar, M. (2010). Biosorption of heavy metal ions using wheat based biosorbents–A review of the recent literature. Bioresource technology, 101(14), 5043-5053.

[2] Asthana, A., Verma, R., Singh, A. K., Susan, M. A. B. H. (2016). Glycine functionalized magnetic nanoparticle entrapped calcium alginate beads: a promising adsorbent for removal of Cu (II) ions. Journal of environmental chemical engineering, 4(2), 1985-1995.

[3] Hao, Y. M., Man, C., Hu, Z. B. (2010). Effective removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution by amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of hazardous materials, 184(1-3), 392-399.

[4] Zhou, Y. T., Nie, H. L., Branford-White, C., He, Z. Y., Zhu, L. M. (2009). Removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution by chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles modified with α-ketoglutaric acid. Journal of colloid and interface science, 330(1), 29-37.

[5] Almohammadi, S., Mirzaei, M. (2016). Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto granular activated carbon in the presence of competitor ions. Advances in Environmental Technology, 2(2), 85-94.

[6] Vijayalakshmi, K., Gomathi, T., Latha, S., Hajeeth, T., Sudha, P. N. (2016). Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution using nanochitosan/sodium alginate/microcrystalline cellulose beads. International journal of biological macromolecules, 82, 440-452.

[7] Edition, F. (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO chronicle, 38(4), 104-8

[8] Badruddoza, A. Z. M., Tay, A. S. H., Tan, P. Y., Hidajat, K., Uddin, M. S. (2011). Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as nano-adsorbents for removal of copper ions: synthesis and adsorption studies. Journal of hazardous materials, 185(2-3), 1177-1186.

[9] Song, J., Kong, H., Jang, J. (2011). Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by polyrhodanine-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of colloid and interface science, 359(2), 505-511.

[10] Khan, T. A., Singh, V. V. (2010). Removal of cadmium (II), lead (II), and chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution using clay. Toxicological and environ chemistry, 92(8), 1435-1446.

[11] Ngah, W. W., Endud, C. S., Mayanar, R. (2002). Removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution onto chitosan and cross-linked chitosan beads. Reactive and functional polymers, 50(2), 181-190

[12] Khan, T. A., Mukhlif, A. A., Khan, E. A., Sharma, D. K. (2016). Isotherm and kinetics modeling of Pb (II) and Cd (II) adsorptive uptake from aqueous solution by chemically modified green algal biomass. Modeling earth systems and environment, 2(3), 117.

[13] Khan, T. A., Nazir, M., Khan, E. A. (2016). Magnetically modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the adsorption of bismarck brown R and Cd (II) from aqueous solution: batch and column studies. Desalination and water treatment, 57(41), 19374-19390.

[14] Tonin, C., Aluigi, A., Varesano, A., Vineis, C. (2010). Keratin-based nanofibres. In Nanofibers. InTech.

[15] Aguayo-Villarreal, I. A., Bonilla-Petriciolet, A., Hernández-Montoya, V., Montes-Morán, M. A., Reynel-Avila, H. E. (2011). Batch and column studies of Zn2+ removal from aqueous solution using chicken feathers as sorbents. Chemical engineering journal, 167(1), 67-76.

[16] Mittal, A. (2006). Adsorption kinetics of removal of a toxic dye, Malachite Green, from wastewater by using hen feathers. Journal of hazardous materials, 133(1-3), 196-202.

[17] Khosa, M. A., Wu, J., Ullah, A. (2013). Chemical modification, characterization, and application of chicken feathers as novel biosorbents. Rsc Advances, 3(43), 20800-20810.

[18] Aluigi, A., Tonetti, C., Vineis, C., Tonin, C., Mazzuchetti, G. (2011). Adsorption of copper (II) ions by keratin/PA6 blend nanofibres. European polymer journal, 47(9), 1756-1764.

[19] Khosa, M. A., Ullah, A. (2014). In-situ modification, regeneration, and application of keratin biopolymer for arsenic removal. Journal of hazardous materials, 278, 360-371.

[20] Dutta, J. (2005). Nanotechnology in environmental protection and pollution. Science and technology of advanced materials, 6(3-4), 219.

[21] Nomura, Y., Aihara, M., Nakajima, D., Kenjou, S., Tsukuda, M., Tsuda, Y. (2007). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/594,758.

[22] Bertagnolli, C., Grishin, A., Vincent, T., Guibal, E. (2016). Recovering heavy metal ions from complex solutions using polyethylenimine derivatives encapsulated in alginate matrix. Industrial engineering chemistry research, 55(8), 2461-2470.

[23] Sheng, P. X., Ting, Y. P., Chen, J. P., Hong, L. (2004). Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms. Journal of colloid and interface science, 275(1), 131-141.

[24] Gao, B., An, F., Liu, K. (2006). Studies on chelating adsorption properties of novel composite material polyethyleneimine/silica gel for heavy-metal ions. Applied surface science, 253(4), 1946-1952.

[25] Khosa, M. A., Ullah, A. (2014). In-situ modification, regeneration, and application of keratin biopolymer for arsenic removal. Journal of hazardous materials, 278, 360-371.

[26] Langmuir, I. (1916). The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids.Journal of the American chemical society, 38(11), 2221-2295.

[27] Freundlich, U. (1906). Uber die adsorption in lusungen. Zeitschrift für physikalische chemie, 57, 385-470.

[28] Redlich, O. J. D. L., Peterson, D. L. (1959). A useful adsorption isotherm. Journal of physical chemistry, 63(6), 1024-1024.

[29] Sips, R. (1948). On the structure of a catalyst surface. The journal of chemical physics, 16(5), 490-495.

[30] Lagergren, S. (1898). Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga svenska vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar, 24, 1-39.

[31] Ho, Y. S., McKay, G. (1999). Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process biochemistry, 34(5), 451-465.

[32] Weber, W. J., Morris, J. C. (1963). Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. Journal of the sanitary engineering division, 89(2), 31-60.

[33] Stuart, B. (2005). Infrared spectroscopy. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ACS Pub.

[34] Sun, P., Liu, Z. T., Liu, Z. W. (2009). Particles from bird feather: A novel application of an ionic liquid and waste resource. Journal of hazardous materials, 170(2-3), 786-790.

[35] Ha, S. W., Tonelli, A. E., Hudson, S. M. (2005). Structural studies of bombyx m ori silk fibroin during regeneration from solutions and wet fiber spinning. Biomacromolecules, 6(3), 1722-1731.

[36] Shao, J., Zheng, J., Liu, J., Carr, C. M. (2005). Fourier transform Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of silk fibroin. Journal of applied polymer science, 96(6), 1999-2004.

[37] Xie, H., Li, S., Zhang, S. (2005). Ionic liquids as novel solvents for the dissolution and blending of wool keratin fibers. Green chemistry, 7(8), 606-608.

[38] Cullity, B. D. (1978). Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, USA.

[39] Rad, Z. P., Tavanai, H., Moradi, A. R. (2012). Production of feather keratin nanopowder through electrospraying. Journal of aerosol science, 51, 49-56.

[40] Eslahi, N., Dadashian, F., Nejad, N. H. (2013). Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of wool fibers for nanoparticles production using response surface methodology. Advanced powder technology, 24(1), 416-426.

[41] Saravanan, S., Sameera, D. K., Moorthi, A., Selvamurugan, N. (2013). Chitosan scaffolds containing chicken feather keratin nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering. International journal of biological macromolecules, 62, 481-486.

[42] Xu, H., Shi, Z., Reddy, N., Yang, Y. (2014). Intrinsically water-stable keratin nanoparticles and their in vivo biodistribution for targeted delivery. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2(37), 9145-9150.

[43] Mall, I. D., Srivastava, V. C., Agarwal, N. K. (2006). Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses. Dyes and pigments, 69(3), 210-223.

[44] Brown, P. A., Gill, S. A., Allen, S. J. (2000). Metal removal from wastewater using peat. Water research, 34(16), 3907-3916.

[45] Shukla, A., Zhang, Y. H., Dubey, P., Margrave, J. L., Shukla, S. S. (2002). The role of sawdust in the removal of unwanted materials from water. Journal of hazardous materials, 95(1-2), 137-152.

[46] Ki, C. S., Gang, E. H., Um, I. C., Park, Y. H. (2007). Nanofibrous membrane of wool keratose/silk fibroin blend for heavy metal ion adsorption. Journal of membrane science, 302(1-2), 20-26.

[47] Das, D., Basak, G., Lakshmi, V., Das, N. (2012). Kinetics and equilibrium studies on removal of zinc (II) by untreated and anionic surfactant treated dead biomass of yeast: Batch and column mode. Biochemical engineering journal, 64, 30-47.

[48] Langmuir, I. (1918). The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American chemical society, 40(9), 1361-1403.

[49] Tran, H. N., You, S. J., Hosseini-Bandegharaei, A., Chao, H. P. (2017). Mistakes and inconsistencies regarding adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions: a critical review. Water research, 120, 88-116.

[50] Belhachemi, M., Addoun, F. (2011). Comparative adsorption isotherms and modeling of methylene blue onto activated carbons. Applied water science, 1(3-4), 111-117.

[51] Al-Asheh, S., Banat, F. (2003). Beneficial reuse of chicken feathers in removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Journal of cleaner production, 11(3), 321-326.

[52] Kocabaş-Ataklı, Z. Ö., Yürüm, Y. (2013). Synthesis and characterization of anatase nanoadsorbent and application in removal of lead, copper and arsenic from water. Chemical engineering journal, 225, 625-635.

[53] Chang, Y. C., Chen, D. H. (2005). Preparation and adsorption properties of monodisperse chitosan-bound Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cu (II) ions. Journal of colloid and interface science, 283(2), 446-451.

[54] Banerjee, S. S., Chen, D. H. (2007). Fast removal of copper ions by gum Arabic modified magnetic nano-adsorbent. Journal of hazardous materials, 147(3), 792-799.

[55] Huang, S. H., Chen, D. H. (2009). Rapid removal of heavy metal cations and anions from aqueous solutions by an amino-functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent. Journal of hazardous materials, 163(1), 174-179.

[56] Liu, J. F., Zhao, Z. S., Jiang, G. B. (2008). Coating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with humic acid for high efficient removal of heavy metals in water. Environmental science and technology, 42(18), 6949-6954.

[57] Guo, S., Jiao, P., Dan, Z., Duan, N., Chen, G., Zhang, J. (2017). Preparation of L-arginine modified magnetic adsorbent by one-step method for removal of Zn (Ⅱ) and Cd (Ⅱ) from aqueous solution. Chemical engineering journal, 317, 999-1011.