Synthesis of nanocomposite based on Semnan natural zeolite for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible light

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Faculty of Nanotechnology, Semnan University, Semnan, 35131-19111, Iran

2 Faculty of nanotechnology, Semnan University, Semnan, 35131-19111, Iran

3 Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, 35131-19111, Iran

Abstract

This study investigated the photocatalytic behaviors for the nanocomposite of TiO2 P25 and Semnan natural zeolite in the decomposition of tetracycline under visible light in an aqueous solution. The structural features of the composite were investigated by a series of complementary techniques that included X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area (BET) measurement, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The surface area measurement disclosed an enhancement of surface area by ~2 times for the synthesized TiO2/Semnan natural zeolite than that of commercial TiO2 P25. The as-prepared photocatalyst (TiO2/Semnan natural zeolite) showed pH dependence and more than 87% of the tetracycline could be degraded from the solution under visible irradiation within 90 min at a pH of 6. This excellent catalytic ability was mainly attributed to the hybrid effect of the photocatalyst and adsorbent. The results provided new insight into the performance of active photocatalysts on the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. In addition, the immobilization of TiO2 onto Semnan natural zeolite permitted easier separation of the adsorbent from the treated water.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Daghrir, R., Drogui, P. (2013). Tetracycline antibiotics in the environment: a review. Environmental chemistry letters, 11(3), 209-227.
[2] Liu, H., Yang, Y., Kang, J., Fan, M., Qu, J. (2012). Removal of tetracycline from water by Fe−Mn binary oxide. Journal of environmental sciences, 24(2), 242–247.
[3] Kümmerer, K. (2009). The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use–present knowledge and future challenges. Journal of environmental management, 90(8), 2354-2366.
[4] Saadati, F., Keramati, N., Ghazi, M. M. (2016). Influence of parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline in wastewater: A review. Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, 46(8), 757-782.
[5] Yuan, F., Hu, C., Hu, X., Wei, D., Chen, Y., Qu, J. (2011). Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H2O2 process. Journal of hazardous materials, 185(2), 1256-1263.
[6] Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A., Shirzadi, A. (2014). Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of ferrous oxide by doping onto the nano-clinoptilolite particles towards photodegradation of tetracycline. Chemosphere, 107, 136-144.
[7] Yue, L., Wang, S., Shan, G., Wu, W., Qiang, L., Zhu, L. (2015). Novel MWNTs–Bi2WO6 composites with enhanced simulated solar photoactivity toward adsorbed and free tetracycline in water. Applied catalysis B: Environmental, 176, 11-19.
[8] Choina, J., Duwensee, H., Flechsig, G. U., Kosslick, H., Morawski, A. W., Tuan, V. A., Schulz, A. (2010). Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical from water by photocatalytic treatment. Central european journal of chemistry, 8(6), 1288-1297.
[9] Zhang, Y. P., Jia, C. G., Peng, R., Ma, F., Ou, G. N. (2014). Heterogeneous photo-assisted Fenton catalytic removal of tetracycline using Fe-Ce pillared bentonite. Journal of central south university, 21, 310-316.
[10] Yu, X., Lu, Z., Si, N., Zhou, W., Chen, T., Gao, X., Yan, C. (2014). Preparation of rare earth metal ion/TiO2 Hal-conducting polymers by ions imprinting technique and its photodegradation property on tetracycline. Applied clay science, 99, 125-130.
[11] Chang, C. T., Wang, J. J., Ouyang, T., Zhang, Q., Jing, Y. H. (2015). Photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen in aqueous solutions by TiO2/ZSM-5 zeolite with low energy irradiation. Materials science and engineering: B, 196, 53-60.
[12] Zhu, X. D., Wang, Y. J., Sun, R. J., Zhou, D. M. (2013). Photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline in aqueous solution by nanosized TiO.Chemosphere, 92(8), 925-932.
[13] Abbasi, A., Ghanbari, D., Salavati-Niasari, M., Hamadanian, M. (2016). Photo-degradation of methylene blue: photocatalyst and magnetic investigation of Fe2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles and nanocomposites. Journal of materials science: Materials in electronics, 27(5), 4800-4809.
[14] Shi, J. W., Zheng, J. T., Ji, X. J. (2010). TiO2-SiO2/activated carbon fibers photocatalyst: preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity. Environmental engineering science, 27(11), 923-930.
[15] Paul, B., Martens, W. N., Frost, R. L. (2012). Immobilised anatase on clay mineral particles as a photocatalyst for herbicides degradation. Applied clay science, 57, 49-54.
[16] Wang, H., Yang, B., Zhang, W. J. (2010). Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange on Y zeolite supported TiO2. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 129, pp. 733-737). Trans Tech Publications.
[17] Liu, S., Lim, M., Amal, R. (2014). TiO2-coated natural zeolite: rapid humic acid adsorption and effective photocatalytic regeneration. Chemical engineering science, 105, 46-52.
[18] Durgakumari, V., Subrahmanyam, M., Rao, K. S., Ratnamala, A., Noorjahan, M., Tanaka, K. (2002). An easy and efficient use of TiO2 supported HZSM-5 and TiO2+HZSM-5 zeolite combinate in the photodegradation of aqueous phenol and p-chlorophenol. Applied catalysis A: General, 234(1), 155-165.
[19] Treacy, M. M. J., Higgins, J. B. (2001). Collection of simulated XRD powder patterns for zeolites. Published on behalf of the Structure Commission of the ‘International Zeolite Association’. Powder patterns, 203, 204.
[20] Huang, M., Xu, C., Wu, Z., Huang, Y., Lin, J., Wu, J. (2008). Photocatalytic discolorization of methyl orange solution by Pt modified TiO2 loaded on natural zeolite. Dyes and pigments, 77(2), 327-334.
[21] Alshameri, Aref, Chunjie Yan, and Xinrong Lei. "Enhancement of phosphate removal from water by TiO2/Yemeni natural zeolite: preparation, characterization and thermodynamic." Microporous and mesoporous materials 196 (2014): 145-157.
[22] Kanakaraju, D., Kockler, J., Motti, C. A., Glass, B. D., Oelgemöller, M. (2015). Titanium dioxide/zeolite integrated photocatalytic adsorbents for the degradation of amoxicillin. Applied catalysis B: Environmental, 166, 45-55.
[23] Ogura, M., Kawazu, Y., Takahashi, H., Okubo, T. (2003). Aluminosilicate species in the hydrogel phase formed during the aging process for the crystallization of FAU zeolite. Chemistry of materials, 15(13), 2661-2667.
[24] Zhao, C., Deng, H., Li, Y., Liu, Z. (2010). Photodegradation of oxytetracycline in aqueous by 5A and 13X loaded with TiO2 under UV irradiation. Journal of hazardous materials, 176(1), 884-892.
[25] Zhong, S., Zhang, F., Yu, B., Zhao, P., Jia, L., Zhang, S. (2016). Synthesis of PVP-Bi2WO6 photocatalyst and degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light. Journal of materials science: Materials in electronics, 27(3), 3011-3020.
[26] Ghorai, T. K., Biswas, N. (2013). Photodegradation of rhodamine 6G in aqueous solution via SrCrO4 and TiO2 nano-sphere mixed oxides. Journal of materials research and technology, 2(1), 10-17.
[27] Anpo, M., Takeuchi, M. (2003). The design and development of highly reactive titanium oxide photocatalysts operating under visible light irradiation. Journal of catalysis, 216(1), 505-516.
[28] Ohno, T., Tagawa, S., Itoh, H., Suzuki, H., Matsuda, T. (2009). Size effect of TiO2–SiO2 nano-hybrid particle. Materials chemistry and physics,113(1), 119-123.
[29] Li, F., Jiang, Y., Yu, L., Yang, Z., Hou, T., Sun, S. (2005). Surface effect of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Applied surface science, 252(5), 1410-1416.
[30] Keramati, N., Nasernejad, B., Fallah, N. (2014). Synthesis of N-TiO2: Stability and visible light activity for aqueous styrene degradation. Journal of dispersion science and technology, 35(10), 1476-1482.